Eye Function: Definitions, Anatomy and Physiology

Eye Definition

Did you know that sight was an essential meaning for the human being, since it is the one that sends back to our brain information about the outside world? Indeed, 70% of the information we receive goes through vision. On the other hand, sight is a vital meaning for basic learning such as reading or writing.

Sight is therefore the sense we most seek, which passes through an organ called the eye. The human eye can be compared to a camera (in a much more complex and sophisticated version): it perceives lights, colors, and shapes, allowing us to capture images and send them back to our brain through the optic nerve and therefore, interpret the outside world, the environment in which we are, and interact with other individuals.


The composition of our eyes

This organ is a globe weighing 7 to 8 grams, containing a diameter of about 2 centimeters, with several components essential to its proper functioning:

  • The cornea, which is a lens through which light penetrates the eye. The spherical shape of the cornea plays a strategic role in focusing light on the retina, which is why it should not be damaged, at the risk of damage to vision. In addition, the blinking of the eyes by the eyelids allows to keep it healthy because a hydration and a natural cleansing occur by the lacrimal secretion.
  • The iris, which acts as the diaphragm in the eye to filter the amount of light up to the retina. This is the colored part of the eye, which differs from one person to another and which, by its action, dilates the pupil according to the regulation of the light it lets in.
  • The crystalline lens, which has an accommodation role to obtain a focus on a specific object at all distances. The lens acts as the “zoom” of a camera, it can change shape depending on the focal point of the eye: it will bomb when the object is near, and flatten when the object is far away. This accommodation allows a clear vision at any distance.
  • The retina, which acts as a photo film, transforming the light perceived into images (by photoreceptors) and returning the brain through the optic nerve (by electrical energy). It can identify lights at 10 km, as well as in complete darkness.
  • The sclera, which is a flexible membrane allowing the movement of the eyes. It is often called "the white of the eye".


Vision Disorders and Means of Correction

As we have seen the functioning of our eyes and the importance of each of these components, we understand that our eyes are strategic and complex bodies. If one of these components does not function properly, the view of an individual may be disturbed, as well as his interaction with the environment in which he/she is. It is why different disorders of vision can arise, such as myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia, with the consequences and the symptoms that follow. These vision disorders lead to blurred vision, which will not allow a clear vision.

That is why solutions exist to address them and allow individuals to see better and thus live better in the surrounding environment. Precilens offers solutions in night lenses (orthokeratology), tailor-made contact lenses so that everyone, whatever he or she may be, can live and see freely, without the need for visual equipment during the day (glasses or contact lenses), as someone who has never experienced a vision disorder.

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